Standards-2

KINDERGARTEN
Reading
1.0 Word Analysis, Fluency, and Systematic Vocabulary Development
Students know about letters, words, and sounds. They apply this knowledge to read
simple sentences.

Concepts About Print
1.1 Identify the front cover, back cover, and title page of a book.
1.2 Follow words from left to right and from top to bottom on the printed page.
1.3 Understand that printed materials provide information.
1.4 Recognize that sentences in print are made up of separate words.
1.5 Distinguish letters from words.
1.6 Recognize and name all uppercase and lowercase letters of the alphabet.

Phonemic Awareness
1.7 Track (move sequentially from sound to sound) and represent the number,
sameness/difference, and order of two and three isolated phonemes (e.g., /f, s, th/, /j,
d, j/).
1.8 Track (move sequentially from sound to sound) and represent changes in simple
syllables and words with two and three sounds as one sound is added, substituted,
omitted, shifted, or repeated (e.g., vowel-consonant, consonant-vowel, or
consonant-vowel-consonant).
1.9 Blend vowel-consonant sounds orally to make words or syllables.
1.10 Identify and produce rhyming words in response to an oral prompt.
1.11 Distinguish orally stated one-syllable words and separate into beginning or ending
sounds.
1.12 Track auditorily each word in a sentence and each syllable in a word.
1.13 Count the number of sounds in syllables and syllables in words.

Decoding and Word Recognition
1.14 Match all consonant and short-vowel sounds to appropriate letters.
1.15 Read simple one-syllable and high-frequency words (i.e., sight words).
1.16 Understand that as letters of words change, so do the sounds (i.e., the alphabetic
principle).

Vocabulary and Concept Development
1.17 Identify and sort common words in basic categories (e.g., colors, shapes, foods).
1.18 Describe common objects and events in both general and specific language.

2.0 Reading Comprehension
Students identify the basic facts and ideas in what they have read, heard, or viewed.
They use comprehension strategies (e.g., generating and responding to questions,
comparing new information to what is already known). The selections in
Recommended Readings in Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Eight
(California Department of Education, 1996) illustrate the quality and complexity of the
materials to be read by students.

Structural Features of Informational Materials
2.1 Locate the title, table of contents, name of author, and name of illustrator.

Comprehension and Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text
2.2 Use pictures and context to make predictions about story content.
2.3 Connect to life experiences the information and events in texts.
2.4 Retell familiar stories.
2.5 Ask and answer questions about essential elements of a text.

3.0 Literary Response and Analysis
Students listen and respond to stories based on well-known characters, themes, plots,
and settings. The selections in Recommended Readings in Literature, Kindergarten
Through Grade Eight illustrate the quality and complexity of the materials to be read
by students.

Narrative Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text
3.1 Distinguish fantasy from realistic text.
3.2 Identify types of everyday print materials (e.g., storybooks, poems, newspapers,
signs, labels).
3.3 Identify characters, settings, and important events.




FIRST GRADE

Reading

1.0 Word Analysis, Fluency, and Systematic Vocabulary Development
Students understand the basic features of reading. They select letter patterns and know
how to translate them into spoken language by using phonics, syllabication, and word
parts. They apply this knowledge to achieve fluent oral and silent reading.

Concepts About Print
1.1 Match oral words to printed words.
1.2 Identify the title and author of a reading selection.
1.3 Identify letters, words, and sentences.

Phonemic Awareness
1.4 Distinguish initial, medial, and final sounds in single-syllable words.
1.5 Distinguish long-and short-vowel sounds in orally stated single-syllable words (e.g., bit/bite).
1.6 Create and state a series of rhyming words, including consonant blends.
1.7 Add, delete, or change target sounds to change words (e.g., change cow to how;
pan to an).
1.8 Blend two to four phonemes into recognizable words (e.g., /c/ a/ t/ = cat; /f/ l/ a/t/ = flat).
1.9 Segment single syllable words into their components (e.g., /c/ a/ t/ = cat; /s/ p/ l/ a/t/ = splat; /r/ i/ ch/ = rich).

Decoding and Word Recognition
1.10 Generate the sounds from all the letters and letter patterns, including consonant
blends and long-and short-vowel patterns (i.e., phonograms), and blend those sounds into recognizable words.
1.11 Read common, irregular sight words (e.g., the, have, said, come, give, of).
1.12 Use knowledge of vowel digraphs and r-controlled letter-sound associations to read words.
1.13 Read compound words and contractions.
1.14 Read inflectional forms (e.g., -s, -ed, -ing) and root words (e.g., look, looked, looking).
1.15 Read common word families (e.g., -ite, -ate).
1.16 Read aloud with fluency in a manner that sounds like natural speech.

Vocabulary and Concept Development
1.17 Classify grade-appropriate categories of words (e.g., concrete collections of animals, foods, toys).

2.0 Reading Comprehension
Students read and understand grade-level-appropriate material. They draw upon a variety of comprehension strategies as
needed (e.g., generating and responding to essential questions, making predictions, comparing information from several
sources). The selections in Recommended Readings in Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Eight illustrate the quality
and complexity of the materials to be read by students. In addition to their regular school reading, by grade four, students
read
one-half million words annually, including a good representation of grade-level-appropriate narrative and expository text
(e.g., classic and contemporary literature, magazines, newspapers, online information). In grade one, students begin to
make progress toward this goal.

Structural Features of Informational Materials
2.1 Identify text that uses sequence or other logical order.

Comprehension and Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text
2.2 Respond to who, what, when, where, and how questions.
2.3 Follow one-step written instructions.
2.4 Use context to resolve ambiguities about word and sentence meanings.
2.5 Confirm predictions about what will happen next in a text by identifying key words (i.e., signpost words).
2.6 Relate prior knowledge to textual information.
2.7 Retell the central ideas of simple expository or narrative passages.

3.0 Literary Response and Analysis
Students read and respond to a wide variety of significant works of children's literature. They distinguish between the
structural features of the text and the literary terms or elements (e.g., theme, plot, setting, characters). The selections in
Recommended Readings in Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Eight illustrate the quality and complexity of the
materials to be read by students.

Narrative Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text
3.1 Identify and describe the elements of plot, setting, and character(s) in a story, as well as the story's beginning, middle,
and ending.
3.2 Describe the roles of authors and illustrators and their contributions to print materials.
3.3 Recollect, talk, and write about books read during the school year.




SECOND GRADE

Reading

1.0 Word Analysis, Fluency, and Systematic Vocabulary Development
Students understand the basic features of reading. They select letter patterns and know how to translate them into spoken
language by using phonics, syllabication, and word parts. They apply this knowledge to achieve fluent oral and silent
reading.

Decoding and Word Recognition
1.1 Recognize and use knowledge of spelling patterns (e.g., diphthongs, special vowel spellings) when reading.
1.2 Apply knowledge of basic syllabication rules when reading (e.g., vowel-consonant-vowel = su/ per; vowel
consonant/consonant-vowel = sup/ per).
1.3 Decode two-syllable nonsense words and regular multisyllable words.
1.4 Recognize common abbreviations (e.g., Jan., Sun., Mr., St.).
1.5 Identify and correctly use regular plurals (e.g., -s, -es, -ies) and irregular plurals
(e.g., fly/ flies, wife/ wives).
1.6 Read aloud fluently and accurately and with appropriate intonation and expression.

Vocabulary and Concept Development
1.7 Understand and explain common antonyms and synonyms.
1.8 Use knowledge of individual words in unknown compound words to predict their meaning.
1.9 Know the meaning of simple prefixes and suffixes (e.g., over-, un-, -ing, -ly).
1.10 Identify simple multiple-meaning words.

2.0 Reading Comprehension
Students read and understand grade-level-appropriate material. They draw upon a variety of comprehension strategies as
needed (e.g., generating and responding to essential questions, making predictions, comparing information from several
sources).

The selections in Recommended Readings in Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Eight illustrate the quality and
complexity of the materials to be read by students. In addition to their regular school reading, by grade four, students read
one-half million words annually, including a good representation of grade-level-appropriate narrative and expository text
(e.g., classic and contemporary literature, magazines, newspapers, online information). In grade two, students continue to
make progress toward this goal.

Structural Features of Informational Materials
2.1 Use titles, tables of contents, and chapter headings to locate information in expository text.

Comprehension and Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text
2.2 State the purpose in reading (i. e., tell what information is sought).
2.3 Use knowledge of the author's purpose( s) to comprehend informational text.
2.4 Ask clarifying questions about essential textual elements of exposition (e.g., why,
what if, how).
2.5 Restate facts and details in the text to clarify and organize ideas.
2.6 Recognize cause-and-effect relationships in a text.
2.7 Interpret information from diagrams, charts, and graphs.
2.8 Follow two-step written instructions.

3.0. Literary Response and Analysis
Students read and respond to a wide variety of significant works of children's literature. They distinguish between the
structural features of the text and the literary terms or elements (e.g., theme, plot, setting, characters). The selections in
Recommended Readings in Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Eight illustrate the quality and complexity of the
materials to be read by students.

Narrative Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text
3.1 Compare and contrast plots, settings, and characters presented by different authors.
3.2 Generate alternative endings to plots and identify the reason or reasons for, and the impact of, the alternatives.
3.3 Compare and contrast different versions of the same stories that reflect different cultures.
3.4 Identify the use of rhythm, rhyme, and alliteration in poetry.




THIRD GRADE

Reading

1.0 Word Analysis, Fluency, and Systematic Vocabulary Development
Students understand the basic features of reading. They select letter patterns and know how to translate them into spoken
language by using phonics, syllabication, and word parts. They apply this knowledge to achieve fluent oral and silent
reading.

Decoding and Word Recognition
1.1 Know and use complex word families when reading (e.g., -ight) to decode
unfamiliar words.
1.2 Decode regular multisyllabic words.
1.3 Read aloud narrative and expository text fluently and accurately and with appropriate pacing, intonation, and
expression.

Vocabulary and Concept Development
1.4 Use knowledge of antonyms, synonyms, homophones, and homographs to determine the meanings of words.
1.5 Demonstrate knowledge of levels of specificity among grade-appropriate word sand explain the importance of these
relations (e.g., dog/ mammal/ animal/ living things).
1.6 Use sentence and word context to find the meaning of unknown words.
1.7 Use a dictionary to learn the meaning and other features of unknown words.
1.8 Use knowledge of prefixes (e.g., un-, re-, pre-, bi-, mis-, dis-) and suffixes (e.g.,
-er, -est, -ful) to determine the meaning of words.

2.0 Reading Comprehension
Students read and understand grade-level-appropriate material. They draw upon a variety of comprehension strategies as
needed (e.g., generating and responding to essential questions, making predictions, comparing information from several
sources).
The selections in Recommended Readings in Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Eight illustrate the quality and
complexity of the materials to be read by students. In addition to their regular school reading, by grade four, students read
one-half million words annually, including a good representation of grade-level-appropriate narrative and expository text
(e.g., classic and contemporary literature, magazines, newspapers, online information). In grade three, students make
substantial progress toward this goal.

Structural Features of Informational Materials
2.1 Use titles, tables of contents, chapter headings, glossaries, and indexes to locate
information in text.

Comprehension and Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text
2.2 Ask questions and support answers by connecting prior knowledge with literal
information found in, and inferred from, the text.
2.3 Demonstrate comprehension by identifying answers in the text.
2.4 Recall major points in the text and make and modify predictions about forthcoming
information.
2.5 Distinguish the main idea and supporting details in expository text.
2.6 Extract appropriate and significant information from the text, including problems and solutions.
2.7 Follow simple multiple-step written instructions (e.g., how to assemble a product or play a board game).

3.0 Literary Response and Analysis
Students read and respond to a wide variety of significant works of children's
literature.
They distinguish between the structural features of the text and literary terms or elements (e.g., theme, plot, setting,
characters). The selections in Recommended Readings in Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Eight illustrate the
quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students.

Structural Features of Literature
3.1 Distinguish common forms of literature (e.g., poetry, drama, fiction, nonfiction).

Narrative Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text
3.2 Comprehend basic plots of classic fairy tales, myths, folktales, legends, and fables from around the world.
3.3 Determine what characters are like by what they say or do and by how the author or illustrator portrays them.
3.4 Determine the underlying theme or author's message in fiction and nonfiction text.
3.5 Recognize the similarities of sounds in words and rhythmic patterns (e.g., alliteration, onomatopoeia) in a selection.
3.6 Identify the speaker or narrator in a selection.




FOURTH GRADE
Reading

1.0 Word Analysis, Fluency, and Systematic Vocabulary Development
Students understand the basic features of reading. They select letter patterns and know how to translate them into spoken
language by using phonics, syllabication, and word parts. They apply this knowledge to achieve fluent oral and silent
reading.

Word Recognition
1.1 Read narrative and expository text aloud with grade-appropriate fluency and accuracy and with appropriate pacing,
intonation, and expression.

Vocabulary and Concept Development
1.2 Apply knowledge of word origins, derivations, synonyms, antonyms, and idioms to determine the meaning of words
and phrases.
1.3 Use knowledge of root words to determine the meaning of unknown words within a passage.
1.4 Know common roots and affixes derived from Greek and Latin and use this knowledge to analyze the meaning of
complex words (e.g., international).
1.5 Use a thesaurus to determine related words and concepts.
1.6 Distinguish and interpret words with multiple meanings.

2.0 Reading Comprehension
Students read and understand grade-level-appropriate material. They draw upon a variety of comprehension strategies as
needed (e.g., generating and responding to essential questions, making predictions, comparing information from several
sources). The selections in Recommended Readings in Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Eight illustrate the quality
and complexity of the materials to be read by students. In addition to their regular school reading, students read one-half
million words annually, including a good representation of grade-level-appropriate narrative and expository text (e.g.,
classic and contemporary literature, magazines, newspapers, online information).

Structural Features of Informational Materials
2.1 Identify structural patterns found in informational text (e.g., compare and contrast, cause and effect, sequential or
chronological order, proposition and support) to strengthen comprehension.

Comprehension and Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text
2.2 Use appropriate strategies when reading for different purposes (e.g., full comprehension, location of information,
personal enjoyment).
2.3 Make and confirm predictions about text by using prior knowledge and ideas presented in the text itself, including
illustrations, titles, topic sentences, important words, and foreshadowing clues.
2.4 Evaluate new information and hypotheses by testing them against known information and ideas.
2.5 Compare and contrast information on the same topic after reading several passages or articles.
2.6 Distinguish between cause and effect and between fact and opinion in expository text.
2.7 Follow multiple-step instructions in a basic technical manual (e.g., how to use computer commands or video games).

3.0 Literary Response and Analysis
Students read and respond to a wide variety of significant works of children's literature. They distinguish between the
structural features of the text and the literary terms or elements (e.g., theme, plot, setting, characters). The selections in
Recommended Readings in Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Eight illustrate the quality and complexity of the
materials to be read by students.

Structural Features of Literature
3.1 Describe the structural differences of various imaginative forms of literature, including fantasies, fables, myths, legends,
and fairy tales.

Narrative Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text
3.2 Identify the main events of the plot, their causes, and the influence of each event on future actions.
3.3 Use knowledge of the situation and setting and of a character's traits and motivations to determine the causes for that
character's actions.
3.4 Compare and contrast tales from different cultures by tracing the exploits of one character type and develop theories
to account for similar tales in diverse cultures (e.g., trickster tales).
3.5 Define figurative language (e.g., simile, metaphor, hyperbole, personification) and identify its use in literary works.



FIFTH GRADE

Reading

1.0 Word Analysis, Fluency, and Systematic Vocabulary Development
Students use their knowledge of word origins and word relationships, as well as historical and literary context clues, to
determine the meaning of specialized vocabulary and to understand the precise meaning of grade-level-appropriate
words.

Word Recognition
1.1 Read aloud narrative and expository text fluently and accurately and with appropriate pacing, intonation, and
expression.

Vocabulary and Concept Development
1.2 Use word origins to determine the meaning of unknown words.
1.3 Understand and explain frequently used synonyms, antonyms, and homographs.
1.4 Know abstract, derived roots and affixes from Greek and Latin and use this knowledge to analyze the meaning of
complex words (e.g., controversial).
1.5 Understand and explain the figurative and metaphorical use of words in context.

2.0 Reading Comprehension (Focus on Informational Materials)
Students read and understand grade-level-appropriate material. They describe and connect the essential ideas, arguments,
and perspectives of the text by using their knowledge of text structure, organization, and purpose. The selections in
Recommended Readings in Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Eight illustrate the quality and complexity of the
materials to be read by students. In addition, by grade eight, students read one million words annually on their own,
including a good representation of grade-level-appropriate narrative and expository text (e.g., classic and contemporary
literature, magazines, newspapers, online information). In grade five, students make progress toward this goal.

Structural Features of Informational Materials
2.1 Understand how text features (e.g., format, graphics, sequence, diagrams, illustrations, charts, maps) make
information accessible and usable.
2.2 Analyze text that is organized in sequential or chronological order.

Comprehension and Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text
2.3 Discern main ideas and concepts presented in texts, identifying and assessing evidence that supports those ideas.
2.4 Draw inferences, conclusions, or generalizations about text and support them with textual evidence and prior
knowledge.

Expository Critique
2.5 Distinguish facts, supported inferences, and opinions in text.

3.0 Literary Response and Analysis
Students read and respond to historically or culturally significant works of literature. They begin to find ways to clarify the
ideas and make connections between literary works. The selections in Recommended Readings in Literature,
Kindergarten Through Grade Eight illustrate the quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students.

Structural Features of Literature
3.1 Identify and analyze the characteristics of poetry, drama, fiction, and nonfiction and explain the appropriateness of the
literary forms chosen by an author for a specific purpose.

Narrative Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text
3.2 Identify the main problem or conflict of the plot and explain how it is resolved.
3.3 Contrast the actions, motives (e.g., loyalty, selfishness, conscientiousness), and appearances of characters in a work
of fiction and discuss the importance of the contrasts to the plot or theme.
3.4 Understand that theme refers to the meaning or moral of a selection and recognize themes (whether implied or stated
directly) in sample works.
3.5 Describe the function and effect of common literary devices (e.g., imagery, metaphor, symbolism).

Literary Criticism
3.6 Evaluate the meaning of archetypal patterns and symbols that are found in myth and tradition by using literature from
different eras and cultures.
3.7 Evaluate the author's use of various techniques (e.g., appeal of characters in a picture book, logic and credibility of
plots and settings, use of figurative language) to influence readers' perspectives.



SIXTH GRADE

Reading

1.0 Word Analysis, Fluency, and Systematic Vocabulary Development
Students use their knowledge of word origins and word relationships, as well as historical and literary context clues, to
determine the meaning of specialized vocabulary and to understand the precise meaning of grade-level-appropriate
words.

Word Recognition
1.1 Read aloud narrative and expository text fluently and accurately and with appropriate pacing, intonation, and
expression.

Vocabulary and Concept Development
1.2 Identify and interpret figurative language and words with multiple meanings.
1.3 Recognize the origins and meanings of frequently used foreign words in English and use these words accurately in
speaking and writing.
1.4 Monitor expository text for unknown words or words with novel meanings by using word, sentence, and paragraph
clues to determine meaning.
1.5 Understand and explain "shades of meaning" in related words (e.g., softly and quietly).

2.0 Reading Comprehension (Focus on Informational Materials)
Students read and understand grade-level-appropriate material. They describe and connect the essential ideas, arguments,
and perspectives of the text by using their knowledge of text structure, organization, and purpose. The selections in
Recommended Readings in Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Eight illustrate the quality and complexity of the
materials to be read by students. In addition, by grade eight, students read one million words annually on their own,
including a good representation of grade-level-appropriate narrative and expository text (e.g., classic and contemporary
literature, magazines, newspapers, online information). In grade six, students continue to make progress toward this goal.

Structural Features of Informational Materials
2.1 Identify the structural features of popular media (e.g., newspapers, magazines, online information) and use the features
to obtain information.
2.2 Analyze text that uses the compare-and-contrast organizational pattern.

Comprehension and Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text
2.3 Connect and clarify main ideas by identifying their relationships to other sources and related topics.
2.4 Clarify an understanding of texts by creating outlines, logical notes, summaries, or reports.
2.5 Follow multiple-step instructions for preparing applications (e.g., for a public library card, bank savings account,
sports club, league membership).

Expository Critique
2.6 Determine the adequacy and appropriateness of the evidence for an author's conclusions.
2.7 Make reasonable assertions about a text through accurate, supporting citations.
2.8 Note instances of unsupported inferences, fallacious reasoning, persuasion, and propaganda in text.

3.0 Literary Response and Analysis
Students read and respond to historically or culturally significant works of literature that reflect and enhance their studies
of history and social science. They clarify theideas and connect them to other literary works. The selections in
Recommended Readings in Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Eight illustrate the quality and complexity of the
materials to be read by students.

Structural Features of Literature
3.1 Identify the forms of fiction and describe the major characteristics of each form.

Narrative Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text
3.2 Analyze the effect of the qualities of the character (e.g., courage or cowardice, ambition or laziness) on the plot and
the resolution of the conflict.
3.3 Analyze the influence of setting on the problem and its resolution.
3.4 Define how tone or meaning is conveyed in poetry through word choice, figurative language, sentence structure, line
length, punctuation, rhythm, repetition, and rhyme.
3.5 Identify the speaker and recognize the difference between first-and third-person narration (e.g., autobiography
compared with biography).
3.6 Identify and analyze features of themes conveyed through characters, actions, and images.
3.7 Explain the effects of common literary devices (e.g., symbolism, imagery, metaphor) in a variety of fictional and
non-fictional texts.

Literary Criticism
3.8 Critique the credibility of characterization and the degree to which a plot is contrived or realistic (e.g., compare use of
fact and fantasy in historical fiction).

 

 

Last Modified on January 21, 2010